The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.
About the Author
The second test was more straightforward — and possibly a little alarming, if you’re not familiar with nuclear weapons design tests.
In its first “drop test” of the W88 warhead since 1987, Sandia researchers hoisted an unarmed version of the weapon’s re-entry body on a crane and dropped it almost 200 feet to smash onto a concrete slab below.
Gathering data for the latest nuclear warhead design is as nuanced as gathering intricate computer modeling data from flight tests and as brutally honest as dropping a nuclear warhead’s shell onto a concrete slab to see if it breaks.
Mark Rockwell is a staff writer covering acquisition, procurement and homeland security. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels. The June CRAFT test, according to Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities, was the first of several planned tests intended to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance. It was also the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kansas City Plant, and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.
Sandia said it will use vibration and shock measurement data from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon.
What happens when you drop a nuclear warhead on concrete?
By Mark RockwellNov 04, 2014
Sandia National Labs’ 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., was used to gather data on the durability of the W88 ALT 370 warhead.
The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. Contact him at email@example.com or follow him on Twitter at @MRockwell4.
. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests, according to the lab.
Researchers at Sandia National Labs, who are responsible for validating designs, improving computer modeling and updating component specifications for the W88 Alt 370 (alteration), have finished gathering data from two tests for an upgraded version of the US W88 nuclear warhead used in the Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile.
And, according to a statement from the labs, the W88 Alt 370 is cleared to move forward.
The test is designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface, according to the lab and helps develop evidence that the shell would remain safe during an accident view it
That difference in cost was noted by Brian in the letter to the energy secretary.
At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.
Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.
In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.
National Nuclear Security Administration: http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/
By H. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.
Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. Such approval means they are ready to use.
The change in manufacturing process, from wrought to cast, has been a subject of debate and extensive analysis among those involved in nuclear weapons. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.
But Los Alamos and agency officials bristle at suggestions that the new triggers might be less reliable or have flaws that could affect their performance.
Sunday, January 20, 2008
“The manufacturing process for the W88 has been incredibly, thoroughly vetted,” said Jeanloz. All rights reserved. no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.
Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. Los Alamos National Laboratory: http://www.lanl.gov/
Raymond Jeanloz of the University of California at Berkeley, a longtime adviser to the government on nuclear weapons issues, said in an interview he is not surprised there have been some modification in the W88 warhead, but that does not mean it is less reliable.
Kevin Roark, a spokesman for the Los Alamos weapons program said the changes in specifications “have been fully explored, fully vetted and fully accepted by NNSA and engineering analysis (conducted) by us.”
The government will not say how many W88 warheads it has. The bottom line _ the pits produced meet all functional quality requirements for use and are fully accepted by NNSA.”
“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. The number has been estimated at about 400, in addition to an estimated 3,200 W76 warheads that also are designed for the submarine-based Trident II missile.
Project on Government Oversight: http://www.pogo.org
Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.
Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.
Officials say the cost figures reflect the fact that new facilities and a new process for making the replacement triggers had to be developed. He was on a panel that last year concluded the plutonium in warhead triggers is much sturdier than previously thought, with a life span of as much 100 years.
Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.
On the Net:
FOXNews.com – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum
The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.
The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. That required extensive computer modeling and testing to assure precise shape, size and weight and that the triggers meet performance requirements.
In an e-mail response to the watchdog group’s claims, Bernard Pleau, a spokesman for the agency’s office at Los Alamos, said the changes do not “compromise the integrity of the parts. At Los Alamos, it has cost an estimated $430 million over 10 years to certify the first trigger. The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.
The agency acknowledged there were “more than 70 engineering authorizations” _ as it characterizes the waivers _ approved in the new W88 pit certification and that this was a “relative high number.”
Because the U.S. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form. JOSEF HEBERT, Associated Press Writer
A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. Scientists at Los Alamos and at the government’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California concluded the change did not degrade the reliability of the triggers, according to NNSA.
The next logical development, as the nuclear states continue to deny their obligations to shed their arsenals, is for the non-nuclear states to proceed independently to enact a treaty outlawing these weapons internationally. The existence of nuclear weapons means they could be used by accident, by misunderstanding or by malicious intent. Humanity owes a great debt to Norway for this initiative.
Furthermore decent people round the globe know that the existence of nuclear weapons is a brooding evil which undermines the moral integrity of humankind. It is time to take action 7.’
Mexico offered to host a follow-up meeting to this conference and such is the vital importance of this approach that other states declared their intention to organise additional events on this subject.
The powerful summary statement of the conference Chair pointed out that the broad participation of states and civil society reflected the burgeoning awareness that this issue is of the utmost importance to all the peoples of the world. Is it possible to imagine the degree of paranoia represented by such a standing threat? The UK government has started to spend one hundred billion pounds on rebuilding its Trident fleet of nuclear submarines, each one with the capacity to incinerate over 40 million people. She concluded ‘It is time to change the status quo. It is time we ban nuclear weapons.
And finally there is hope. Each bomb on a major city would kill millions of people; women, children, babies, old people, everyone. Our belief is that this process should comprise a specific timeframe, the definition of the most appropriate fora, and a clear and substantive framework, making the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons the essence of disarmament efforts. She insisted that we must act to get rid of them or they will be used by accident, misunderstanding or malicious intent.
She went on to explain that the use against cities of less than one percent of existing weapons would put billions of lives in jeopardy and have a long lasting detrimental effect on both the planet’s climate and agriculture. We believe this is the path to achieve a world without nuclear weapons’. Getting rid of them will take courageous leadership by states but such leadership will have the support of civil society. They have had 69 years to get rid of their nuclear weapons while all that the citizens of the world hear from them are windy speeches around purported good intentions which never come to fruition. The nuclear states were invited but declined to attend. It included delegations representing 146 States, the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement and civil society organizations.
There are 9 nuclear states and there are 183 non-nuclear states. Frozen in a realm of outdated thinking which was always inhuman; their leaders frightened and paranoid and prepared to put the survival of humanity in jeopardy simply in order to feel important and powerful as they strut, uncomprehending, on the world stage.
The Third Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Austria later this year. They are the very antithesis of humanity5…’
The US government has 5 nuclear submarines on patrol at all times carrying 1000 times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb3. The movement for an international ban is unstoppable.. But these 9 are outnumbered by 20 to one. As we discuss the statistics and strategies of ‘nuclear arsenals’ and ‘nuclear deterrence’ it can be hard to keep in mind the reality underlying the abstract discussions. 4. http://www.good.is/post/what-the-volcano-can-teach-us-about-nuclear-war/
This ground-breaking and historic conference was attended by delegates from 127 countries and 70 nongovernmental organizations. The other four nuclear states(Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea) too are ‘improving’ their arsenals. This is enough to wipe out the entire population of the planet many times over together with all other life forms. The world has moved on.
The Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13 and 14 February 2014. No emergency services could begin to cope There would be no relief. He called for a ‘legally binding instrument’ and declared that the, ‘time has come to initiate a diplomatic process conducive to this goal. What sort of people would do such a thing? What kind of human would threaten such an atrocity?
The risks of ‘accidental, mistaken, unauthorised or intentional use is growing significantly due to more countries holding weapons on higher levels of combat readiness’. The suffering would be indescribable and for many would go on for months and years before death.
Is this sane? Has the human race lost its senses? A single United States thermonuclear warhead, designated W88, has an estimated ‘yield’ of 475 kilotons2. The ‘yield’ is the destructive power expressed in tons of TNT equivalent. The security of the non-nuclear states is threatened by the irresponsible and self-focused behaviour of the 9 others. The nuclear states have become a sorry sight. The non-nuclear majority which do not feel the need for a lethal ‘security’ crutch have decided to take the initiative. And the fallout would have global consequences that would kill millions of people, disrupt climate patterns, and threaten global agricultural collapse4.
After hearing presentations from a wide range of experts on the various effects of nuclear weapon detonations the conference concluded that “it is unlikely that any state or international body could address the immediate humanitarian emergency caused by a nuclear weapon detonation in an adequate manner and provide sufficient assistance to those affected.” Conference members also agreed that the effects of a nuclear weapon detonation will not be constrained by national borders but will produce significant negative regional and global effects6.
It is ironic that the worst offenders are the five permanent members of the ‘Security’ Council of the United Nations. It is the turn of the last and most destructive of them all.
infrastructure, it would not necessarily be a “hostile act.”
“I would consider it a crime,” Dempsey said. Asked what he would consider a hostile act, Dempsey said “attacking our critical infrastructure” would be a act worthy of a similar response.
Graham noted he was about to lunch with the Vice President of China who is in the U.S. top military officer said should China’s military be found to be behind hacks into the U.S. this week and asked Dempsey if there was anything he wanted to pass on to Xi Jinping.
By Adam Levine
Gen. Martin Dempsey, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said he “believe(s) someone in China is hacking into our systems and stealing technology and intellectual property which at this point is a crime.”
Asked by Republican Senator Lindsey Graham from South Carolina if it could be proven that the PLA was behind a hacking of the defense infrastructure, would it be considered a “hostile act,” Dempsey said it wasn’t necessarily.
“Happy Valentine’s Day,” Dempsey replied..
But Dempsey told the Senate Armed Services Committee where he was testifying that he cannot attribute the Chinese hacking to China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army.
You should not patch the cracks online, watching porn.
We’ve been together for 2 years, and had the most healthy and beautiful relationship. I don’t feel comfortable with him anymore. It’s the same principle. This, assuming you didn’t go for a lap dance or more at the strip club, or started chatting with girls online.
Please post any replies identifying the message with “REPLY” on the first paragraph of your reply.
I believe all guys who do so behind their partners back are “virtual cheaters”. (Hello, who doesn’t?! Living 100% under catholic beliefs is rarely seen anymore).
I took the computer and went in the bathroom, locked the door, and checked out all his “history” and “caches” from both his Safari and Firefox internet browsers. When someone breaks my trust, I rather not be with that person anymore. How would they feel if their girlfriends do the sam, watching or chatting to guys online?
Why do guys never mention they were watching porn online to their partners?…because they know it’ll bother them! That’s why they hide it.
It’s a very hard subject to discuss, as everyone has different views of what a healthy relationship and sexual relationship should be. I said: “The porn sited you’ve visited”. I decided not to go. To what I said: “Maybe more like 30 times and counting?!…it’s right here in the “History”!” And then he started looking like “shit, I got caught”.
Like most people, I’ve had pre-marital sex with all my partners (I’m not married) I’m just not as liberal as other people who don’t mind having orgies at home, kissing other guys/girls, taking many drugs, etc. This got me even more mad.
I don’t see any difference between watching porn online and going to a strip club to see girls dancing naked. I rather not waste my time or his anymore, and be in a relationship in those terms.
This happened right next to him, while I was using his laptop, and he was sleeping next to me. I was also looking to let it all out while writing it. When you do something behind someone else’s back, it’s because you know in your heart it might upset the other person.
Doing this not only causes distrust from the other person, but also inadequate feelings and insecurities. I’ve never seen a man so in love with me before, who always really put me first.
It’s very sad, as I am deeply in love with him, and always thought this was the man I will be with forever. Because it’s an easier way out for them to say that, than admit they were hiding something from their partners.
Good luck to all!
I just found out my boyfriend watches porn sites often, by looking at his computer “History”. I saw it, as I was looking for another link in the “History” I had visited before, that had nothing to do with porn.
Me personally…I grew up in a catholic family were also, trust and respect for others is everything. Than, he said, “we’ll i watched it once before”. He had many visits to porn sites. I rather not live with that stress, or have to bring up this situation everytime I get mad or angry at him for something else (I know I will do that). We don’t go to mass or do all the catholic rituals, we just have that catholic upbringing from having being in private catholic schools. It’s hard to realize this is the beginning of the end of this relationship, at this point in my life. Then, he woke up, and asked me what was it I was looking at. Remember, I only ask for TRUST, RESPECT, and COMMUNICATION in a relationship. Still, I have experimented with things catholisism says you should not. Everyone has different needs. He went blank, and said: “I haven’t visited any porn sites”. I don’t trust him the same way, and to me, trust is everything. I’m 40, and it’s hard to not know now were my life may be heading without him. I need someone to talk to about this, but feel ashamed to tell others what my boyfriend (or ex-boyfriend) did.
In a relationship, I only ask TRUST, COMMUNICATION, and RESPECT. I feel totally lost, at a moment in my life were I most need my partner’s support, as I have several relatives in my life who are dealing with serious health issues.
We were supposed to go to NYC together on vacation 4 days later. I said: “Don’t treat me as if I’m stupid, you can’t deny it, it’s right here, in your “History”. now, I feel like I should just go on with my life, and go live my career and personal dreams elsewhere.
I felt so mad and betrayed. And have given my partners the same.. While in the car he said: “I did it because I was just curious”. I know if I stay with him, it’ll always hunt me that he may be going online to watch porn, or that he may be lying to me on other things. My partner knew that very well.
I’ve always wanted to work elsewhere, and haven’t done so to support his career dreams at this time (we planned to tackle my career dreams together later on, and tackle his first). You can call it conservative, or you can call me wild child too…it depends on what your core beliefs are.
It’s very selfishl and immature for guys to think it’s ok only because “guys think like that”.
Instead, they should talk to their partners about it as a couple, to see how the other feels about it. I came out of the bathroom, took my things and left. At 5am! he followed me in his car and took me home. I NEVER negotiate with not getting that. I wasn’t looking for it. Not do it behind their partners back. You’re looking at girls naked: one is dancing in front of you view it
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and sets forth specific conditions and restrictions on the same. – Vietlott) and 63 [traditional] lottery companies operating at provincial level. The only house race ground which was open to public was closed in 2013. Gambling licenses have granted to selected investors mainly on a piloting scheme and with strict requirements (i.e. In fact, the Ministry of Finance (the “MOF”) is expected to play a crucial role in deciding whether a Project will be accepted. However, it can be broadly argued, though not absolutely guaranteed, that if an investor is licensed to carry out a specific [and conventional] “gambling” activities, it may have a good position to apply for the same business but operated on an Internet-based platform.
In late 2013, two major draft decrees on gambling activities (i.e. Draft laws on sport betting, casinos, which serve as key guidance on gambling business, have been discussed from time to time but not yet been issued.
In light of the above, a foreign investor wishing to invest in this sector may consider different channels to access Vietnam online gaming market.
In the latter case, Vietnamese law does not treat online gambling as a full-fledged, independent and separate branch of gambling industry. Rather it deals with major branches of gambling activities which are (i) lottery; (ii) casino/prized electronic machines; (iii) horse and greyhound race and (iv) sports betting, etc. Another greyhound race ground is still active in Ba Ria – Vung Tau Province, Vietnam.. For example, while lottery business is solely reserved for State owned enterprises, foreign investment in casinos is permissible. – completion of construction works, installment of equipment and facilities, etc.).
It also bears noting that market access to such gambling branches varies by investment forms, legal entity of the investors and capacity thereof, etc. Similarly, besides 63 State-owned lottery enterprises in each province, a lottery corporation was established in 2013 (i.e. Vietnamese law on gambling business is therefore still in its infantry stage though initial ideas date back to early 2000s. – Vietlott) to offer online lottery lotto games, digits games and fast drawing games nationwide. – not letting Vietnamese nationals in). For example, it may cooperate with licensed vendors in Vietnam as a supplier of equipment, machinery or materials or provider of technical assistance services relating to the same. Or else, it may actively approach the MOF to initiate a proposed plan.
Generally, an investment project in gambling must be first granted with an investment certificate issued by the people’s committee at provincial level. It appears however that little progress has been since made due to conflicting opinions among the Government and divisions belonging to the National Assembly on these sensitive issues.
To date, Vietnam has 01 national online lottery company (i.e. For such purposes, the investors must obtain in-principal of the Prime Minister on an ad-hoc basis. A number of 5-star hotels in major cities of Vietnam are permitted to run prized electronic machines. Subsequently, the project’s owner may have to obtain a special business license from the MOF upon its fulfilment of post-establishment conditions (i.e. To make it clearer, if an investor is permitted to open a casino at a specific resort only, it will not have the natural right to offer casino products through the Internet. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.
In principle, gambling, other than lottery and betting at licensed sport center(s), is strictly prohibited in Vietnam and individuals involved in gambling activities may face criminal charge. Except for online lottery, other forms of gambling using Internet-based have been so far strictly prohibited or at least not officially permitted.
INTERESTED IN DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM? VISIT: www.vietnamlaws.xyz
Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any questions on the above. – betting and casinos), content of which is not made public, were submitted by the Ministry of Finance, as the draftsperson, to the National Assembly of Vietnam for the latter opinions. By the same token, depending on characteristics of specific gambling business, the scope of activities can be either limited to a specific approved location in a major city of Vietnam (e.g. – dog/greyhound race or traditional lottery) or nationwide (online lottery).
Technically, “online gaming” [business] in Vietnam may cover: (i) “online game”, a game played over some form of computer network; or (ii) “online gambling”, a term for gambling using the Internet.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
As gambling is a sensitive activity which requires a high level of surveillance, a gambling investor must essentially follow a general principle of “doing exactly what your license states”. 07 casino licenses have been granted to investors as a part of their resort complexes but only 6 of which have commenced their operations view it
But as the son of construction magnate Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, it was his destiny.
Anthony Lappé is a NY-based author, television producer and media commentator. And a reinvigorated Soviet Union is on the cusp of something big.
RFK’s victory over Hoover is short-lived. Washington, D.C.” width=”52″ height=”52″/
RFK’s election victory over Herbert Hoover is short-lived.
When Afghanistan falls to indigenous rebels, the Soviets, seeing America’s problems in Egypt, decide not to invade, instead preferring to focus on solidifying control of the existing satellite republics.
The scandal widens when the White House attempts a coverup. A crane breaks and drops a load of lumbar in the sand. The American public rallies behind the president with bipartisan zeal.
A Re-imagined 70s
The battle over Civil Rights becomes the central domestic issue. Osama never wanted to be a middle manager. The foreman removes his hard hat and throws it in the sand, waving his fist at the heavens.
The Soviet Union is a powerhouse.
American troops are amassed at the border of a Central Asian republic. A war in the Middle East disrupts the economy, and the U.S. Hoover sees his chance, and is finally able to find a journalist willing to publish the revelations of his surveillance on the president. Rock Roll becomes boring and American popular culture stagnates.
This week, we are all looking back at the terrible events that happened fifty years ago in Dallas. They establish radical anti-capitalist training camps in the USSR’s Central Asian Republics. Meanwhile, reformers in the Soviet Union stay out of the fray, liberalizing their economy and expanding their oil infrastructure throughout Soviet Central Asia, bringing in much needed hard currency. . But the country is in flames. But JFK’s scandals ironically help RFK. Red Square, Moscow, USSR.
November 22, 1963
When President Kennedy arrives in Texas, he is three years into a tumultuous first term. The economy stalls, and innovation, once the hallmark of the Kennedy legacy, proves illusive. It’s November 22, 2013.
It’s the final act in a battle of political titans that would define the 60s.
Commentators call it the “Martyr’s Mandate” as he pushes forward a new foreign policy agenda that calls for the launch of disarmament talks with the Soviets and an increase in official communication and cultural exchanges.
A minor league baseball stadium. He has weathered six international crises, including a bungled invasion of Cuba, the erection of the Berlin Wall and a standoff with the Soviets over missiles that brought the human race to the brink of oblivion. He swims to the surface and scrambles ashore, where our host stands silently, watching the car sink. No body bags coming back. The girl is trapped. A war in the Middle East disrupts the economy, and the U.S. Our allies begin talking of boycotts of American goods, reminiscent of the global movement against Apartheid in South Africa. Just as one butterfly flapping its proverbial wings might trigger a hurricane thousands of miles away, we never know what tiny decision in the moment might radically alter the course of history.
In 1980, Edward Kennedy is elected president, bringing the Kennedy legacy full circle. The First Lady desperately applies pressure to the wound as the limo speeds off. troops get bogged down in a guerrilla war while trying to secure the Suez Canal and help protect Israel. Berkeley, California” width=”52″ height=”52″/
The late 60s are a time of earnestness. is plunged into recession. Kennedy. Saudi Arabia.” width=”52″ height=”52″/
A strip mall is under construction in the desert. But many Americans still love the “martyr president” despite his transgressions, taking into account all he has endured for the nation. and the USSR are once again at a nuclear standoff. But what about looking back at what didn’t happen? What if JFK had survived that fateful day and went on to serve two terms as president? How might the 60s have been different, and how might it all have lead to a parallel universe present day in which the U.S. No White House sending its young men to fight someone else’s war.
* The idea that JFK’s back brace enabled the kill shot was first proposed by one of the residents who treated JFK’s wounds, and was recounted by presidential historian Robert Dallek in his book An Unfinished Life: John F.
July 19, 1969, Chappaquiddick, Massachusetts: A sports car barrels down a dark road. deploys 180,000 troops to allied nations bordering the Soviet Union. There is no proxy war in Afghanistan, and an international mujahadeen, and its consequent group Al Qaeda, never take shape. A potbellied team manger leaps from the dugout, tossing his beer down, and angrily rushes at home base to yell at the umpire over a called third strike. And in 1972, a tough talking young Republican star named Richard Cheney is elected president, pledging fiscal conservatism and a strong global military presence. He is still the Cold Warrior he ever was, in that he believes American values will triumph over communism, but he is now committed to finding a peaceful way to achieve those ends. But RFK preempts Hoover’s move. Hoover is forced to resign. At first there are no takers. Pressure from his hawkish advisors to send ground troops to Vietnam is ignored. Hoover leaks audiotapes of RFK’s own sexual dalliances in a desperate attempt to bring him down. Hundreds are killed. Join me in the way-back machine for a thought experiment in JFK alternate history:
December 31, 1999. The second slices through his neck.
In November 1968, RFK is elected president in a tight race against Richard Nixon. Dramatic headlines reveal he is wracked by chronic pain, and regularly takes amphetamines to stay alert, and has, in times of extreme stress, taken mood-altering antidepressants. Kennedy: An Alternate History.
Psychologists would later note the president had been dodging death his whole life, from childhood health problems that forced him to spend two months in the Mayo Clinic to a World War II naval battle that nearly killed view it